This is probably the best time of year for anyone interested in plant galls - those strange growths on plants caused by insects, mites and sometimes fungi. These are a few that I've seen locally over the last couple of weeks.
Leaf petiole of common lime Tilia x europaea with a gall chamber containing larvae of the gall midge Continaria tiliarum.
Ash flowers galled by the ash gall mite Eriophyes fraxinivorus.
An old oak apple gall caused by the gall wasp Biorhiza pallida, with exit holes where the adults have hatched.
Silk button galls on the underside of oak leaves, containing larvae of the gall wasp Neuroterus numismalis
Spangle galls on the underside of an oak leaf, containing larvae of the gall wasp Neuroterus quercus-baccarum.
Galls on leaf surface of sycamore caused by the eriophyid mite Eriophyes macrorhynchus aceribus. Click here for pictures of eriophyid mites.
Bean gall in the leaf blade of willow, containing the larva of the sawfly Pontania proxima
Robin's pin cushion or bedeguar gall on wild rose, caused by the gall wasp Diplolepis rosae.
For pictures of the gall wasp click here.
For pictures of the parasite that attacks the wasp, click here.